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Energy is the material basis for economic and social development. The long time excessive exploitation and use of fossil fuel have resulted in severe problems such as resource shortage, environmental pollution and climate change. At the same time, around 1.06 billion people in the world still do not have access to electricity. Energy demand for economic and social development in the future maintains increasing. Sustainable energy development faces many challenges. A fundamental solution is to promote energy transition toward cleanness, electrification and networking, to facilitate the “Two Replacements, One Increase and One Restore”, to build Global Energy Interconnection (GEI) which is clean energy-dominated, electricity-centered, interconnected and shared, and thus to guarantee clean, reliable and affordable modern energy supply for all as well as the implementation of all Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement.

The GEI backbone grid, composed of strategic channels for grid interconnection of different continents and countries, provides the infrastructure foundation for large-scale exploitation, global allocation, complementary and efficient utilization of various clean energy resources worldwide. It is the core of GEI and its development. Based on global energy status, this report firstly analyzes energy challenges and future path of global energy transition. It then dissects global economy, society, trends of energy & power development, endowment of energy resources, methods of exploitation and power flow pattern. Finally, it proposes the GEI backbone grid planning with key inter- continental, inter-regional and cross-border interconnection projects, and systematically analyzes the comprehensive values and benefits of GEI.